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Which word:




Goes best with ALL of these words?






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Yes/No/Not Given

Does the following statement reflect the claims of the writer in the reading passage?

On your answer sheet write

YES If the statement reflects the claims of the writer

NO If the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

NOT GIVEN If it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

1     Climate change is one of the most difficult issues facing countries in conflict.

New research points to a powerful link between climate change and armed conflict. It also finds that countries that are ethnically mixed are more likely to experience this kind of conflict. But their results may actually tell us more about the consequences of colonialism than ethnic diversity. This new research joins a raft of existing research on climate change and conflict – often reaching competing conclusions. What is the link between climate change and conflict? This isn’t an issue that can be solved with one study.

There are in fact hundreds of studies looking at this issue. And they don’t all reach the same conclusion. Some studies do show that climate impacts lead to increased violence. But some studies find that there was actually no connection at all. Being hit by a disaster or climate change impacts didn’t make any difference to levels of violence. Some studies even found the opposite. Climate change impacts actually reduced some kinds of violence. So what happens when we look at all this research as a whole? Yes, some of the studies point in different directions. But what about when we consider all the research together? Does it point to powerful climate – conflict connection, or not?

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Not Given

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True/False/Not Given

Does the information in the statement match the information in the passage?

TRUE   if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE   if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN   if there is no information on this statement

Farmers worldwide are entering a period of increasing uncertainty as climate change compromises food production in areas already sensitive to food insecurity, a new report cautions. And the group predicted to be most affected will be women. The annual report by a worldwide food agency that collects data on global food and farming trends, ties together poverty, hunger, and climate change to persuade governments to adopt policy changes that will protect farmers of the future.

1     Women were found to be the most vulnerable group to the effects of climate change.

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Multiple Choice

Read the text and choose the appropriate answer(s) A, B, C or D. 

In population terms, Djibouti is the smallest state in continental Africa – and only Swaziland and Gambia are smaller in terms of land. France granted independence in 1977, but retained influence until 15 years ago. The current President, Ismael Omar Guelleh, came to power in 1999 the year after neighbouring Ethiopia and Eritrea went to war, since when almost all of landlocked Ethiopia’s foreign trade transits via Djibouti.

As Ethiopia’s economy grew spectacularly, so Djibouti has opened a new container port and petroleum terminal, financed and managed by investors from the United Arab Emirates. Chinese funds and labour have resuscitated the railway, a century after the French engineers completed the original line to the Ethiopian highlands. Cargo will again move speedily and cheaply to Addis Ababa, spurring further Foreign Direct Investment. Port fees and Ethiopia’s transit trade is the mainstay of Djibouti’s economy. In addition to cash, Ethiopia supplies arid Djibouti with electricity and water.

1     Which of the following are true of Djibouti?

      A       It is the smallest country in Africa geographically.

      B       It is economically dependent on Ethiopia.

      C       It is politically dependant on France.

      D       It is becoming more prosperous due to foreign investment.

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B and D

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Matching Information

Look at the following statement and the list of options below. Match the statement with the type of ginseng.

1     Its discovery provided economic benefits for early settlers.

    A     Asian ginseng

    B     American ginseng

    C     Appalachia ginseng

The world has 11 species of ginseng, which have historically been used by various cultures for their medicinal properties. Ginseng is touted as a cure for everything from low energy to erectile dysfunction. The plant is so popular throughout China that many Asian species are now extinct or severely endangered. The discovery of American ginseng in the 1700s by Jesuit priests provided a major financial boost for struggling colonists. Americans began trading their ginseng roots for Chinese tea. Today, the tradition of harvesting wild ginseng, a process known as going “senging” or “sanging,” persists throughout much of Appalachia.

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Completion Tasks

Complete the sentences below.

Use NO MORE THAN ONE WORD for each answer.

Children differ substantially in their mathematical abilities. In fact, some children cannot routinely add or subtract, even after extensive schooling. This new paper proposes that math disability arises from abnormalities in brain areas supporting procedural memory. Procedural memory is a learning and memory system that is crucial for the automatization of non-conscious skills, such as driving or grammar.

1 Children’s mathematical skills are _________ different.

2 Mathematical disability is due to brain __________ related to procedural memory.

3 Procedural memory is an important  __________ related to memory and learning.

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1. substantially 2. abnormalities 3. system

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