Which paragraph contains the following information? Choose A, B or C

1     The evolution of serpents to limbless creatures.  

A) Penguin ancestors were able to fly, but they lost that ability quickly after the demise of the large dinosaurs. The oldest known penguin, with fossils dating to around 60 million years ago, was already a flightless swimmers with stubby wings. Modern penguins retain signatures of their airborne relatives, including wing bones, a pointy keeled breastbone for wing muscle attachments, and feathers. Losing flight made penguins better suited to their environment, because it meant that the birds could get bigger.

B) Plenty of evidence shows that snakes used to have legs, although researchers continue to debate whether today’s serpents evolved from a leggy ancestor that lived on land or at sea. New research found specialized structures in fossil animals akin to the ones modern burrowers use to hear low-frequency ground vibrations made by predators and prey. The evidence suggests that snakes descended from a burrowing ancestor, and their legs regressed so they could better wriggle through the ground.

C) Birds evolved from dinosaurs, and ancient species like Archaeopteryx, the best known link between dinosaurs and birds, were just as long in tooth and claw. Thankfully, even today’s most voracious avian predators do not have teeth, although scientists aren’t entirely sure why birds lost their teeth. One theory says that teeth grew smaller and eventually gave way to beaks to reduce weight for flight. But a 2014 study pushes back on this theory, finding that tooth loss and early beak formation occurred at about the same time.

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B

Choose the most appropriate heading for the paragraph below

Four Earth-years ago, NASA’s Curiosity rover successfully touched ground on Mars’ dusty surface, after surviving a nail-biting descent through the red planet’s thin atmosphere. Since its triumphant arrival, the car-size “laboratory on wheels” has travelled more than 13.5 kilometres, taking pictures, collecting samples, and analysing rocks along the way. Recent software upgrades even let Curiosity autonomously choose which rocks it examines – and shoots with laser beams.

Curiosity has spent more than 1,421 sols, or Martian days, exploring Gale Crater, a low-lying region that may have held past life, if it existed. While the rover has yet to confirm whether Mars once hosted living things, it has found evidence of an ancient freshwater lake in the sediments of Yellowknife Bay, the lowest point of the crater, offering tantalizing insight into the planet’s past habitability. Since September 2014, Curiosity has been examining Mount Sharp, a mountain of layered rocks towering more than five kilometres high in the middle of Gale Crater.

A) Nasa gives Curiosity software upgrade

B) NASA sends rover to Mars

C) Nasa’s Curiosity finds water on Mars

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B

Answer the question below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the text for the answer.

1       What stops earthworms from living long lives?
This earthworm species is common throughout Europe, where they usually reach lengths of between eight to 10 inches. Because earthworms have many predators, the invertebrates normally do not survive long enough in the wild to reach large proportions. Their lifespan is unknown, but the worms have reached six years old in captivity.

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Predators

Choose the best introduction paragraph for the following essay question

Zoos are sometimes seen as necessary but not poor alternatives to a natural environment. Discuss some of the arguments for and/or against keeping animals in zoos.

A) Some people see zoos as a necessary evil. Although there are some ecological benefits for zoos, they are also poor alternatives to native habitats. This essay will discuss the pros and cons of keeping animals in zoos.

B) Many countries have zoos. They are a good way for children and families to be able to see animals they would never otherwise get to see. I think zoos are beneficial to society and this essay will explain why.

C) Zoos are unkind places for animals. Although sometimes they can sometimes benefit conservation of endangered species, they should be banned.

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A

Choose the most appropriate heading for the following paragraph.

For all the wonders of mobile communications, the ability to multitask via phone while shopping in a store may not be a blessing, according to new research. Studies show that shoppers engaged in a mobile phone conversation while trying to shop are less successful at the shopping task at hand. Researchers attribute this to a degree of mental stress induced by the distraction of multitasking. The managerial implication for retailers, they conclude, is that, given the prevalence of multitasking, retailers should consider ways to reduce stress in the shopping environment.

   i. Multitasking the way to shop

   ii. Too stressed to make smart purchases

  iii. Mobile shopping the new craze

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ii