Choose the correct sentence that best summarizes the text.

Four Earth-years ago, NASA’s Curiosity rover successfully touched ground on Mars’ dusty surface, after surviving a nail-biting descent through the red planet’s thin atmosphere. Since its triumphant arrival, the car-size “laboratory on wheels” has travelled more than 13.5 kilometres, taking pictures, collecting samples, and analysing rocks along the way. Recent software upgrades even let Curiosity autonomously choose which rocks it examines – and shoots with laser beams.

Curiosity has spent more than 1,421 sols, or Martian days, exploring Gale Crater, a low-lying region that may have held past life, if it existed. While the rover has yet to confirm whether Mars once hosted living things, it has found evidence of an ancient freshwater lake in the sediments of Yellowknife Bay, the lowest point of the crater, offering tantalizing insight into the planet’s past habitability. Since September 2014, Curiosity has been examining Mount Sharp, a mountain of layered rocks towering more than five kilometres high in the middle of Gale Crater.

A) Over the last four years, NASA’s rover, Curiosity has collected samples and taken photographs of Mars’ surface which have revealed evidence of water, but has not confirmed evidence of life.

B) NASA’s rover, Curiosity has taken photographs of 13.5 kilometers of Mars’ surface over 1, 421 days to find out if life could have existed on the planet.

C) NASA’s rover, Curiosity has had recent software upgrades that have let it explore new areas of Mars looking for evidence of life.

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A

Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

Which of the following most accurately summarizes the opinion of the author in the text?

The German Luftwaffe dropped thousands of bombs on London from 1939 to 1945, killing almost 30,000 people. More than 70,000 buildings were completely demolished, and another 1.7 million were damaged. The extent of the damage to each and every one of these buildings was logged and mapped in near real-time by surveyors, architects, engineers, and construction workers. The result is an incredible collection of maps, colour-coded by hand, that reveal the amount of the destruction in painstaking detail. Today, the maps remain an invaluable resource for academics, family historians, and even builders trying to avoid touching off unexploded bombs.

Now these bomb census maps are available in a beautiful oversized book released earlier this year to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the end of the Blitz, a nine-month period during which London and other British cities were relentlessly attacked by the German air force. Visually, the maps are quite striking. The apparent randomness of the colours stands in contrast to the more orderly pattern of streets and buildings. The damage from World War II transformed London into the architecturally diverse city it is today. The maps showing how widespread the destruction was, really brings home the scale of the devastation.

A) The author believes that the maps are a valuable piece of World War II history.

B) The author believes that the maps are a beautiful and accurate representation of pre-war London.

C) The author believes that the maps are works of art that give information about London’s destruction in World War II

D) The author believes that the maps are an accurate representation of post-war London.

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C

Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

The belief that the Titanic was unsinkable was so strong that passengers and crew alike clung to the belief even as she was actually sinking. Not realising the magnitude of the impending disaster themselves, the officers allowed several boats to be lowered only half full. The officers were afraid the lifeboats would buckle under the weight of the passengers as they had not been informed that the lifeboats had been fully tested prior to departure. As a result, 1,517 passengers met their deaths.

Which of the following most accurately summarizes the opinion of the author in the text?

A) People on board were too shocked to take action.

B) There was a large loss of life when the Titanic sank.

C) Procedures were to blame for the sinking of the Titanic.

D) The sinking of the Titanic was an avoidable catastrophe.

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C

Read the passage below and choose the best summary (A, B or C).

Many advocate legalisation of cannabis, believing that it will eliminate the illegal trade and associated crime, yield a valuable tax-source and reduce policing costs. In 1969, only 16 percent of voters in the USA supported legalization. That number had risen to 36% by 2005. More recent polling indicates that the number has risen even further; in 2009, between 46% and 56% of US voters would support legalization. A Research Centre poll released in 2013, claimed 52 percent of Americans support legalising the drug and only 45 percent oppose legalisation. While support has generally tracked upward over time, it has spiked 11 percentage points since 2010. Research in 2014 shows an increase in the percentage of legalisation supporters, from 52% to 54%.

A) Many believe that cannabis should be legalised and more and more people support its legalisation as can be seen through many polls and research.

B) Many believe that cannabis should be legalised and the number of advocates of is legalisation growing.

C) The percentage of those who support the legalisation of cannabis has grown from 52% to 54%.

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A

Read the passage below and choose the best summary (A, B or C).

The history of chocolate begins in MesoamericaChocolate, the fermented, beverages dates back to 1900 BC. The Aztecs believed that cacao seeds were the gift of Quetzalcoatl, the God of Wisdom, and the seeds had so much value they were used as a form of currency. Originally prepared only as a drink, chocolate was served as a bitter, frothy liquid, mixed with spices, wine or corn puree. It was believed to have powers and to give the drinker strength. After its arrival to Europe in the sixteenth century, sugar was added to it and it became popular throughout society, first among the ruling classes and then among the common people. In the 20th century, chocolate was considered a staple, essential in the rations of United States soldiers at war. The word “chocolate” comes from the Classical Nahuatl word chocolātl, and entered the English language from Spanish.

A) Chocolate is an ancient drink used by the Aztecs who believed it was valuable and healing. It reached Europe in the 1500s where it was enjoyed by upper class Europeans and became popular in the 1900s in the United States.

B) Chocolate is made from cacao seeds which the Aztecs believed were a gift from the God of Wisdom. They drank it for its healing powers.

C) Chocolate was originally consumed as a liquid. Later, sugar was added and it became very popular.

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A

Choose the best summary for the paragraph below.

It probably won’t surprise you to learn that the Leaning Tower of Pisa was never designed to lean. Construction started on the tower, the third structure in Pisa’s cathedral complex, in August of 1173. It was after three of the building’s eight stories had been completed that the uneven settling of the tower’s foundations became obvious. Construction was then paused as war broke out between the Italian city-states. When construction resumed, the engineers tried to compensate for the lean by making the higher stories taller on the short side, but this only served to sink the tower further. The tower’s heaviest bells were then silenced due to fears they would worsen the lean.In 1990, the building was closed for a major straightening scheme which succeeded in reducing the lean to 4.1 metres. Experts say the tower should now remain stable for at least another 200 years.

A) The Leaning Tower of Pisa is a beautiful building in Italy. It was never designed to lean but builders made a mistake during construction which was paused due to war between Italian city-states. Engineers tried to fix the lean but failed.

B) The Leaning Tower of Pisa was built in 1173. Its first three stories were uneven, causing the tower to lean. Construction was halted when war broke out. The building was secured in 1990 and hopefully it will last another 200 years. It is a beautiful piece of architecture and history.

C) The Leaning Tower of Pisa leans due to an engineering error. Early efforts to lessen the lean made it worse. More recently the lean was lessened, securing the tower for another two centuries.

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C

Read the text and answer the question by selecting the correct response (A, B, C).

A 20% sugar tax could discourage shoppers from buying unhealthier breakfast cereals, new research led by Newfinland University shows. Researchers found demand for sugary cereals fell by 48% if consumers knew a tax was being applied and consumers purchased healthier alternatives. The study, carried out by experts from Newfinland University, examined the impact of both a 20% and 40% tax on unhealthier cereals and soft drinks containing sugar. It also looked at whether telling people they were being taxed influenced the way they shopped. Lead researcher, Damien Rizzo, Professor of Economics at Newfinland University Business School, said: “Our findings suggest a 20% sugar tax would work and lead to large changes in shopping behaviour.”

1     What factor caused a decrease in demand for high sugar cereals?

      A       A 20% tax

      B       Knowing how much sugar was in the cereal

      C       Knowing a sugar tax was included in the price

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C