Choose the appropriate answer A, B, C or D.

Scientists from Spain published findings this month documenting the first ever case of a two-headed shark among egg-laying shark species. This catshark lives only in the western Mediterranean, at depths of 330 to 710 meters, and is considered near threatened. While studying the fish’s cardiovascular system, scientists found an embryo with two heads, each with its own mouth, set of eyes, brain, and gill openings. The embryo had a single intestine but two sets of stomachs and livers.

1    The two-headed catshark found by scientists is an

     A   embryo

     B   shark species  

     C   endangered species

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C

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It probably won’t surprise you to learn that the Leaning Tower of Pisa was never designed to lean. Construction started on the tower, the third structure in Pisa’s cathedral complex, in August of 1173. It was after three of the building’s eight stories had been completed that the uneven settling of the tower’s foundations became obvious. Construction was then paused as war broke out between the Italian city-states.

When construction resumed, the engineers tried to compensate for the lean by making the higher stories taller on the short side, but this only served to sink the tower further. The tower’s heaviest bells were then silenced due to fears they would worsen the lean.In 1990, the building was closed for a major straightening scheme which succeeded in reducing the lean to 4.1 metres. Experts say the tower should now remain stable for at least another 200 years.

A) The Leaning Tower of Pisa is a beautiful building in Italy. It was never designed to lean but builders made a mistake during construction which was paused due to war between Italian city-states. Engineers tried to fix the lean but failed.

B) The Leaning Tower of Pisa was built in 1173. Its first three stories were uneven, causing the tower to lean. Construction was halted when war broke out. The building was secured in 1990 and hopefully it will last another 200 years. It is a beautiful piece of architecture and history.

C) The Leaning Tower of Pisa leans due to an engineering error. Early efforts to lessen the lean made it worse. More recently the lean was lessened, securing the tower for another two centuries.

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C

Read the text and choose the appropriate answer A, B or C.

A 20% sugar tax could discourage shoppers from buying unhealthier breakfast cereals, new research led by Newfinland University shows. Researchers found demand for sugary cereals fell by 48% if consumers knew a tax was being applied and consumers purchased healthier alternatives. The study, carried out by experts from Newfinland University, examined the impact of both a 20% and 40% tax on unhealthier cereals and soft drinks containing sugar.

It also looked at whether telling people they were being taxed influenced the way they shopped. Lead researcher, Damien Rizzo, Professor of Economics at Newfinland University Business School, said: “Our findings suggest a 20% sugar tax would work and lead to large changes in shopping behaviour.”

1     What factor caused a decrease in demand for high sugar cereals?

      A       A 20% tax

      B       Knowing how much sugar was in the cereal

      C       Knowing a sugar tax was included in the price

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C

Choose the appropriate answer A, B, C or D.

Beneath the golden sands west of the Nile, at the ancient Egyptian sacred site of Abydos, archaeologists have made an extraordinary discovery: a whole fleet of boats that were sketched onto the interior walls of a subterranean mud-brick boat chamber in about 1840 B.C. The structure was part of the mortuary complex of a 12th-dynasty king named Senwosret III, whose tomb lies nearby.

This unique find reveals new details about how the rituals of the king’s funeral may have played out. It also suggests that an age-old royal burial tradition was still honored here, though that would soon fade as radically different funerary practices came into fashion.

1     The discovery of the boat chamber was a particularly interesting discovery because

      A) it had a whole fleet of boats sketched onto its interior walls.

      B) it gives new information about Sewnworset III’s burial rituals.

      C) it was part of a mortuary complex of a 12th dynasty king.

      D) it suggested that old traditions were still being practiced there.

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B