My family likes to go camping in the summer.
We play games with other families and our team always wins.
The other teams buy us dinner each time we win!
The groups gather together each morning to hike around the campsite.
Sometimes my mother gives rowing classes. Each class learns different rowing techniques.
- Words like family, team, group and class are collective nouns. They are treated as ONE singular noun and therefore the verb takes ‘s’.
- These nouns are countable and can therefore take plural form. In this case, the verb will not take ‘s’.
Can you please pass me that book over there?
I would like to buy this phone here.
Those people standing outside are very noisy.
These peppers we are eating are very hot! Shall we go to the movies tonight? Yes, that is a great idea!
- Use this to refer to a singular noun that is near you.
- Use that to refer to a singular noun that is far from you, and to refer to something someone said.
- Use these to refer to a plural noun that is close to you.
- Use those to refer to a plural noun that is far from you.
After we went to the movies, we went to eat ice-cream.
I waited at the bus stop until the bus came.
While driving across the country on holiday, we saw many natural wonders.
Before getting your driver’s license, you must first pass a written and practical test.
She has been playing basketball since she was 12 years old.
A sentence fragment looks like a sentence, but isn’t. It is missing something that makes it complete.
To be complete, or independent, a sentence must have:
- A subject
- An action (expressed by a verb)
- A complete thought
A dependent clause (starting with a subordinator such as after, before, since, although, if, while, when, until, etc.) cannot stand alone. It must be joined to an independent sentence. If the dependent clause is at the beginning of the sentence, it must be followed by a comma. If the independent clause comes first, then there is no need for a comma.
Since I started working, I have not had much free time.
I have not had much free time since I started working.
Young people should seek advice before making a career choice.
Many people find chocolate addictive
She waved at me enthusiastically but I didn’t know who she was!
Some companies use cheaper materials to save on production costs.
Advice is a noun. Advise is a verb.
Addictive is an adjective. It is used to describe a noun. Addicting is a gerund verb.
Enthusiastically is an adverb. It is used to describe a verb. Enthusiastic is an adjective. It is used to describe a noun.
Product and production are both nouns, but each one has a different meaning. ‘Product cost’ is the cost of the product. ‘Production cost’ is the cost of making the product. In the sentence above, the subject is making the products, not buying them. Therefore, the answer is ‘production costs’.